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In brief

A recent Prime Ministerial Decree No. 4664 of 2022 (“Decree“) was published on 25 December 2022, incorporating new provisions to the executive regulations of the Capital Markets Law No. 95 of 1992.

The Decree provides for the establishment of a voluntary carbon market platform within the Egyptian Stock Exchange (EGX) for the trading of carbon emissions reduction certificates (CERs). The CERs are tradeable financial instruments for greenhouse gases (GHG) and are to be issued in favor of entities establishing projects reducing GHG emissions after obtaining the approval of the relevant authorities which are not currently specified. Each CER unit shall represent the equivalent of one metric ton of carbon dioxide reduced.

In more detail

All governmental authorities, the public sector, the private sector and project developers shall be required to notify the Financial Regulatory Authority (FRA) and the Ministry of Environment of all projects for which CERs shall be issued. Moreover, entities for which CERs are issued shall be required to disclose any events or changes having an impact on approvals issued from the competent authorities throughout the term of the issuance.

A committee, “The CERs Supervisory and Monitoring Committee” shall be established by the FRA board of directors in coordination with the Ministry of Environment involving representatives from the relevant authorities to set the rules for the issuance and trading of CERs, as well as supervising and monitoring the same. EGX shall also issue the CERs trading rules which shall only apply after their ratification by the FRA. FRA shall hold a registry of the projects for which CERs are issued and shall inform the Ministry of Environment of such projects on a monthly basis.

Stay tuned for more updates on any upcoming developments on the topic.


Baker McKenzie holds an outstanding record in climate change expertise and we were once again on the ground at COP27, which took place in Sharm El-Sheikh, participating in ground-breaking discussions and sharing insights to continue to offer cutting-edge advice to our clients. Our experts have long-standing experience advising on carbon markets, supporting both government and regulated entities in their implementation and participation in emission trading schemes and how carbon initiatives are developing around the world.

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Lamyaa Gadelhak is principal at Helmy, Hamza & Partners, Baker McKenzie Cairo, where she co-heads the Banking & Projects Practice Group. She has over 15 years of experience working on the entire spectrum of banking and finance and developing critical projects in energy, mining, infrastructure, environmental markets, and climate change. Lamyaa has been at the forefront of Baker McKenzie's efforts to expand the Firm's expertise in other jurisdictions, including in Africa.
In the area of projects, Lamyaa advises on project development and financing, as well as on regulatory and corporate matters. She also provided her unique perspective in several publications on renewable energy, banking and finance, emissions trading, climate change, and carbon capture and storage. In addition, she was among the first members of the Firm's EMEA Banking & Finance Steering Committee and EMEA Financial Institutions Working Group. Lamyaa currently serves on the steering committees for Baker McKenzie's global project finance and Africa initiatives. She also participates in BakerWomen, a recent initiative to advance female professionals at Baker McKenzie. Lamyaa constantly receives top rankings from publications like Chambers Global, Legal 500, and IFLR, which recognize her many achievements.
Lamyaa received her bachelor's degree in 2014 from Cairo University's Faculty of Law. She then completed her master's degree in business law in 2005 and her master's degree in international and European business law in 2007, both at the Universite Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne. She was admitted to the Egyptian Bar Association in 2005.


Hania Meshref is an associate at Helmy, Hamza & Partners, Baker McKenzie Cairo. She advises a wide range of lenders, sponsors and borrowers on domestic and cross-border transactions, with a particular focus on syndicated loans, real estate finance and project finance. Hania is also currently involved in card payment processing and Fintech projects.

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