World Trade Organization Members laid out several key principles for determining the customs value of imported goods in the 1995 Customs Valuation Agreement with the aim of ensuring that the value of Members’ tariff concessions would not be nullified or undermined. Nonetheless, the WTO is – incorrectly – seldomly considered as a relevant forum for addressing customs valuation issues.
The European Union actively uses anti-dumping and anti-subsidy (or countervailing duty) investigations to protect the EU manufacturing industry from competition from imports. Imports from Türkiye are a prime target for these investigations: in the past 20 years, imports from Türkiye were targeted in 15 anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations. Five of these investigations were initiated in the last three years.
The e-commerce moratorium at the World Trade Organization (WTO) continues to provide fertile ground for discussions between WTO Members. In the most recent discussion round, held in April 2023 in the context of the WTO Work Programme on Electronic Commerce, WTO Members agreed there was a need for further discussions on the definition and scope of the moratorium, and on its implications on developing countries.
The European Union actively uses anti-dumping and anti-subsidy (or countervailing duty) investigations to protect the EU industry. Imports from Indonesia are a prime target for these investigations. Since 2003, imports from Indonesia were targeted in 15 anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations, and four of these investigations were initiated in the last three years.
A remarkable recent trend in trade policy is the pivot of countries towards issue-specific trade agreements. On the heels of standalone regional or bilateral digital trade agreements, countries are now exploring raw material access as the new frontier for bilateral trade cooperation – often in the context of the green transition.