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Paul E. Amberg

Paul Amberg is a partner in Baker McKenzie’s Madrid office, where he handles international trade and compliance issues. He advises multinational companies on export controls, trade sanctions, antiboycott rules, customs laws, anticorruption laws, and commercial law matters.

On 5 January 2023, President Biden signed the Protecting American Intellectual Property Act into law. This law seeks to deter the theft of US intellectual property by non-US actors by threatening to impose economic sanctions on those engaged in trade secrets theft. This law adds to existing measures available under US law, such as criminal prosecution, civil lawsuits, and/or designation to a US restricted parties list such as the Entity List (maintained by the US Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security).

In a judgment of 10 January 2023, the Dutch Supreme Court confirmed that the applicable standard of proof for “intentional” violations of EU sanctions under Dutch law is generally low. The judgment confirmed that, although the intent of the accused with regard to the constituent elements of the relevant sanctions prohibition must be sufficiently proven to establish an intentional violation, intent does not need to be proven as to the unlawfulness of the conduct.

On 16 December 2022, the US Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls issued a proposed rule that would treat two additional types of transactions as activities that are not exports, reexports, retransfers, or temporary imports (“controlled events”) (and, thus, not require authorization) under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations.

On 28 October 2022, the US Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security issued a first round of FAQs regarding the advanced computing and semiconductor manufacturing Interim Final Rule, published on 13 October 2022 (87 Fed. Reg. 62,186) and amending the Export Administration Regulations. The FAQs clarify that that the new restrictions on exports and reexports to China also apply to Hong Kong.

On 6 October 2022, the Assistant Secretary for Export Enforcement issued a policy aimed at enhancing enforcement of the antiboycott rules administered by the US Department of Commerce. The following day a final rule came into effect updating Department of Commerce’s guidance on charging and penalty determinations related to violations of the antiboycott provisions of the Export Administration Regulations. The changes are intended to bring penalty determinations in line with the Department of Commerce’s current view of the severity of certain types of antiboycott violations.

On 9 September 2022, the US Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) published an interim final rule revising the Export Administration Regulations to authorize the release of certain technology and software in the context of “standards-related activity” involving entities listed on the Entity List. Comments on the impact of this action on participation in “standards-related activity” must be submitted to BIS no later than 8 November 2022.